Moving from left to right across a period, atoms become smaller as the forces of attraction become stronger. This causes the electron to move closer to the nucleus, thus increasing the electron affinity from left to right across a period. Electron affinity increases from left to right within a period.
Does attraction increase across a period?
Across a period, effective nuclear charge increases as electron shielding remains constant. A higher effective nuclear charge causes greater attractions to the electrons, pulling the electron cloud closer to the nucleus which results in a smaller atomic radius.
What happens when you move across periods?
Moving Across a Period
Moving from left to right across a period, the atomic radius decreases. The nucleus of the atom gains protons moving from left to right, increasing the positive charge of the nucleus and increasing the attractive force of the nucleus upon the electrons.
What happens to force of attraction down a group?
Since the force of attraction increases across a period the trends noticed down a group are reversed.
What is a electrostatic attraction?
Electrostatic attraction is essentially the attraction between the positively charged nucleus of an atom and the negatively charged electrons surrounding it. The greater the positive charge of the nucleus (the more protons), the greater the effective nuclear charge.
What information about an atom can a period number give you?
The period number represents how many shells of electrons the atom has.
What is coulombic attraction?
Coulombicattractionisafancynamefortheattractionthatoccursbetweenoppositelychargedparticles. In chemistry, we talk about the attraction between protons (+) in the nucleus to the electrons (-) surrounding the nucleus.
What is atomic shielding?
The shielding effect sometimes referred to as atomic shielding or electron shielding describes the attraction between an electron and the nucleus in any atom with more than one electron.
What happens to the strength of electrostatic attraction as distance increases?
Inverse relationships are common in nature. In electrostatics, the electrical force between two charged objects is inversely related to the distance of separation between the two objects. Increasing the separation distance between objects decreases the force of attraction or repulsion between the objects.
Why does the force of attraction between the nucleus and electrons decrease down a group?
As you go down a group, the nuclear charge decreases because the valence electrons move further away from the nucleus depleating the force of attraction between the nucleus and the electrons.
Why does reactivity decrease across a period?
Period – reactivity decreases as you go from left to right across a period. The farther to the left and down the periodic chart you go, the easier it is for electrons to be given or taken away, resulting in higher reactivity. … Group – reactivity decreases as you go down the group.